Short History of the Orthodox Church of the Culdees, and Our Reestablishment

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Short History of the Orthodox Church of the Culdees


– Short Definition of Culdee – 

– The First Century Church –

– Numerous British 1st-5th Century Saints –

– British Israelites –

– Triumphant Christian Israelites –

– Orthodox and Israelite Liturgies –

– Archbishops and Patriarchs –

– Charters of Glastonbury –

– Kings, Queens, Popes, and Heirs –

– The Rights Transferred to the Descendants in Spiritual Anointing –

– Glastonbury Rights to Ban and Set Free –

– Culdees’ Church at Southern California –

Our Current Primace of the OCC, Dr. Stephen MK d’Guelph Brunswick ThD, PhD

– Special Note on the Sabbath – 

– Appendix – 


Short Definition of Culdee.

You can read the Basic Definition of Culdee in the 1911 British Encyclopedia, Volume 7. It conclusively defines the Culdees as “Britain’s earliest priests of God”. The encyclopedia then goes on to defend why that is the most accurate definition of Culdee. 

The Culdees are the original Celtic Orthodox Church. Typically most of the founders of each Celtic school can trace their background back to various Celtic lands, for example Wales, Cornwall, Ireland, Gaul France, and/or Scotland. The ancient Celtic churches of Gaul (France) were considered at the heart of the church. Other Celtic lands are proven to be as far East as Kiev,  and as far as the Black Sea, as was where St Andrew himself had converted the Scottish people to Christ (see their Declaration of Abroath).

However even back to the time of St Columba the Abbot of Iona, he was reputed to have  had several Saxon students (according to Adomnan).

The Saxon makeup of the church overall played a key part ever since the Saxons in the 8th Century King Ine made it law that Saxon Nobles could only marry Celtic and British native Nobles. There are many studies that show Saxons to be anciently of the same Celtic people, which is why they had no problem mixing to become the Anglo Saxon (or Celto-Saxon) nation of England.

We also accept the descriptions of the Culdees to be Irish, as these Clerics used the name in their establishments at the O’Neill’s territories till the most recent times (Ireland and Scotland).


The First Century Church.

The institution known as the “Church of the Culdees” is widely acknowledged to be the Celtic First Century Church at Glastonbury, together with the other Celtic churches already established by Jeremiah the Prophet in 500BC. We suggest you read for the most conclusive proof available on the topic, our article “Numerous Ancient Manuscripts Confirming St. Joseph (of the Sanhedrin) Founded the British Hebrew Priesthood at Glastonbury in 36AD” article published by our Primace Dr. Stephen Michael d’Guelph Brunswick.

Christ’s Uncle Joseph was a man of authority not only holding political and true sovereign rights, acknowledged by all sides, foreign and internal. He was also, as the leading merchant of Rome’s Tin coming out of Cornwall England, on the established protected trade routes of Rome, no doubt a most worthy caretaker of Christ during His “missing 18 years” (age 12 till 30 as documented in the Bible). All of the many caravans of Gold delivered to Christ (with the Frankincense and Myhrr) brought by the Magi/Wisemen was in his most capable hands for safe keeping.  Joseph being the successor to the Davidic Royal kingship on one hand, and the Levitical priesthood on the other, earned him much rights within the Jerusalem government (the Sanhedrin) itself. He had also earned ranks when he was trained in the Roman military, serving together on campaigns with Pilate himself, when he became a Roman “de curio”. The Bible tells us how he could walk in to any rank of Roman officials and throw his weight around.

In the many great ancient books called “the Welsh Genealogies of Saints” it catalogs St Joseph’s descendants as endowing their successors with their Culdean Churches, according to the Hebrew and local English (Biblical) method of inheritance (demonstrating 10 generations).


Numerous British 1st-5th Century Saints.

One of the prides of the Culdees church is our HUNDREDS of well documented Saints which predate the Roman St Augustine’s arrival. Today even the Greek and Russian Orthodox venerate dozens of our First and Second Century Celtic Saints.

150 early Culdee Missionaries are honored in Germany, 45 in France, 30 in Belgium, 13 in Italy, 8 in in Norway and Iceland, to say nothing of other places and Saints of whom mention is made in the British Martyrology. Their burial sites at their well known Monasteries are a great witness.

So many more are venerated by Ireland, Scotland and England, and the rest of the Western Church. The memorial biographies (Hagiographies / Vitas) widely document those of our Saints such as St Aristobulus and St Columbanus, as “CULDEAN” founders of the Church in Western Europe. Download the chapter “Spread of the Culdean Church [in Western Europe] from the book, “History of the Scottish Nation” or The History of The Celtic Church (All Three Volumes): History of Civilization From Pre-historic Times To Medieval Times – FREE PDF. For nearly every generation it has been, and still is acknowledged by historians worldwide that hundreds of British missionaries (Culdean Orthodox Saints) were sent from Britain to convert Western Europe long before Rome sent Augustine to England. (Download PDF From “the Culdee of Glastonbury” 133 British Saints Before Roman Augustine’s arrival – PDF 300 more Irish, Welsh and Scottish Saints are being added in the next release.)

In the early period of the church, the Culdees are renown for having already founded 12 monasteries in England, 13 in Scotland, 7 in France, 16 in Bavaria, 15 in Rhoetia, Germany and Switzerland, 10 in Alsace, 7 in Lorraine, 12 in Armorica and 6 in Italy.


British Israelites.

There are over 3,000 books written on the topic of “British Israelism”, that highlight these facts of the First Century Culdean / British Church.

The Jerusalem Church Moved To Britain, and the Apostolic See of Glastonbury, later called the “Second Rome”. Many 1st-2nd Century British Saints attest to this, see attached PDF of Saints

Some say the Culdees went into hiding. It is true that many “True Orthodox” Dissenter churches(later called Seventh day Baptists) were all formed by high ranking original English Orthodox Clergy in the mid 1600’s. However, the hiding was not for long. Many came to realize that in the present form of the church that they could still follow all the orthodox liturgies, including doing communion of the Saturday 7th day Sabbath. The British church embraced it’s roots as Israel and used the ancient liturgies of Israel. This included not only in the church, but also the Nobility. The Kings and Queens being descendant of King David.  The current Queen of England, when she was crowned was proclaimed by the Archbishop to be “Queen of Israel”, when her coronation was syndicated live on international television. That isn’t to say in every generation they weren’t perfect. Even the Israelites when they lived in Jerusalem had many wicked kings who even let the people forget God’s commandments.


Triumphant Christian Israelites.

In the years just after Christ, there became more of a stronger remnant than Israel ever had in the Old Testament. We who are part of His firstfruits have His law as our delight, that the Holy Spirit has written on our hearts. Some may argue still only there was a remnant among the wider true Israel nations of Christendom, that’s no problem, we can also debate the percentages etc. Christ gave us the keys that the heirarchies of Royalty which originally came from true Israel already understood. The structures put in place by Jeremiah the prophet (sometimes mislabled as Druidism)  were all more than ready to do as Christ told us to pray “His Kingdom come and be done on earth”. The Church Triumphant has had it’s many days of peril, but while governments come and go, the Church has emerged as victors outliving every Government. Under the House of Joseph promises to have the name Israel together with all its birthrights, we see that only fulfilled in the descended nations of Great Britain and America have had such great Kingdom blessings of providence. This has included having the widest space available for protecting the pure religion, where our Orthodox Hebrew beliefs have been maintained through the ages.  Although there has been a general “great falling away” of the rest of the church. We consider those who forgot about His laws to simply be “asleep” and in need of awakening. If they don’t awaken now to be numbered within the “called” “first-fruits” then they will need to stay in the grave an extra 1,000 years till “the second Resurrection”.

Numerous studies can show that throughout the many splits, schisms and governmental interventions, still our true Israelite faith has thrived among the peoples of the remnant Culdees. The kindred peoples known as Culdees are not only Celtic, but span the ranks of Saxon, Norman and Dane (all cousins historically, ie Scots came from “greater Scythia” just as the Saxon). The close kindred connections were maintained although separated by the English channel. Much of France is known as Celtic in origin, just as much of Eastern Europe is documented to hold.

Many can trace their genealogies back to Joseph of Arimathea. Even many in Ireland today trace by DNA their ancestry back to King Neil of Nine hostages, to the original Royal House of Judea of 500BC. As documented in the Welsh Genealogies of Saints you have the physical, not only the spiritual anointings. The spiritual however God also ordained to “seeds” ie the “sons of the prophets” being interchangable with the “sons of Aaron” and “sons (and daughters) of Levi”.

In these ancient celtic lands the physical inheritance was more well maintained together with the spiritual. This is further evident in the Culdees’ succession of Bishops from Saint David of Wales, or of Culdean churches of the original Waldenses(under the Celtic Bishops of Lyon). The Waldensian Bishops of Lyon France claimed succession from the Holy Apostle St John, as did the whole of Asia Minor, that Rome had persecuted for separating to continue observing the original Hebrew festivals. The first Culdees (Bishop Aristobulus, St Joseph Arimathea, and St Philip) had united with them all in the First Century. This is documented in our booklet on the first 500 years of British Saints. These all are shown to have been long holding to the true orthodoxy in the face of extreme persecution. These things come and go, and are often only temporary political matters. You may wish to further learn of this topic, how the remnant have prevailed, in our book on the Holy Orthodox Christian Sabbath on Saturday:

“Honoring of the Sabbath in the Historic Orthodox Church” BOOK PUBLISHED BY OUR CHURCH

There is a consensus among historians that the early American Pilgrims were “Neo-Culdees”. They were indeed more orthodox than the ones we’ve known the last 50 years. Even the most non-conformist congregationalist churches of early America still used the Orthodox English liturgy (BCP text), and have continued using our Orthodox liturgy until very recently.


Orthodox and Israelite Liturgies. 

The present and ancient English liturgy reflects the facts that the Christian nations have always believed they are Israelites. The Hebrew Shama Prayer is used in the oldest of our Culdee Christian liturgies, and is today in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (also used by Roman Catholics) as part of the Eucharist. It is also the oldest prayer that is recited by the Jews (originally from the Great Sanhedrin of 450BC. [That is around the time Jeremiah transplanted much of the priesthood, David’s literal throne (stone of scone), and the remaining heirs of the Judean throne to Ireland]). The English congregations chant the Shama much like Israel did. It is chanted at the Eucharist (also a Hebrew bread feast that Christ pointed to as fulfillment of the shewbread). The shama is typically sung or recited before the Decaloge (or 10 Commandments). Some versions of the liturgy say you can optionally recite the Hebrew Shama text “Hear O Israel.. etc” rather than reciting the full 10 Commandments.

The Didache and the English Liturgy (BCP) as rooted in the Sarum Missal remain our primary Orthodox liturgy.

The Saturday Sabbath is also called the day of rest in the “Collect for Saturday”. While most of the Hebrew feasts are already listed in the Book of Common Prayer, the preface says, a Bishop may add or reduce the feasts based on the local needs and availability of Ministers. Read more on this topic in the sub-chapters on the British Church in the booklet “Honoring the Sabbath in the Orthodox Church“.


Archbishops and Patriarchs.

Archbishop Parker, the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of Queen Elizabeth promised in his letter to Calvin, concerning the proposal of a union among all Protestants, reminding him that the Church of England would “retain her Episcopacy; but not as from Pope Gregory, who sent Augustine the monk hither, but from Joseph of Arimathea.” (Gildas, 1525, also in “The Life and Acts of Archbishop Parker” By John Strype, Published in 1711.) [Note that Gregory was fiercely opposed by Saint Columbanus the Culdee from the Luxeuil Abbey.]

The Patriarch Cyril Lucaris of Constantinople also reached out to the Orthodox English (also called Dissenters and Protestants). He made a confession of faith that was in absolute agreement with the Orthodox Culdees. It sounded exactly as Calvin agreed. Calvin also followed more the Orthodox liturgy himself, much moreso than those today claiming to be in Calvin descended churches.

There were numerous recognitions within the churches of the world, that they would yield to Glastonbury on points of antiquity and precedence.

At the Synod of Pisa in 1409, Council of Constance in 1417, Synod of Sienna in 1424, and the Council of Basel in 1434. There was reached a consensus that the Churches of France and Spain must yield in points of antiquity and precedence to that of Britain. This was for the sole basis of Glastonbury being the first church of the Hebrew Apostles of Christ.

All Eastern Patriarchates together with the Tsars of Russia have often formally agreed Britain is an independent Orthodox jurisdiction from the First Century. (“History of the Nonjurors…” by Lathbury)

The Orthodox worldwide celebrate the First Century Bishop of Britain, St Aristobulus, assistant of the Holy Apostle St Andrew.

The Russian Orthodox decided in 1907 that the English BCP Liturgy is Canonical, rooted in the Sarum Missal and purely Orthodox.

Roman Catholics officially endorsed to the validity of our Protestant (Western or Eastern) Orthodox sacraments.


Charters of Glastonbury.

Numerous Royals, Clergy, Bishops and Archbishops claimed and proved Glastonbury’s rightful status as England’s birthright to exert their independence from Rome, and seniority in spiritual matters of the church. In each case, even Rome and the Vatican had to passively accept Glastonbury’s claim of a higher status that wasn’t even subject to Rome. Not only in numerous Royal charters going back to the first century, but this status was also confirmed and endorsed in about 30 Papal Bulls. Such rights confirmed in the Charters and Papal Bulls were higher than any order of Clergy have ever had, not even the Knights Templar had as many rights/obligations. We will get into some of those living rights in the following chapters.


Kings, Queens, Popes and Heirs.

Not only the Welsh and Saxon but the Norman French, German and even the Byzantine Imperial houses made many important decisions for their Empires based on Glastonbury

You may wish to read our article: Welsh and Celto-Saxon Kings Protecting Glastonbury (and the religion of the Culdees)

The Heir of Glastonbury, the Lord Prior John Nott, is not known so well. At the time of the Reformation, the ancient seat of the Culdees (Glastonbury) was destroyed by Henry VIII. Nearly all the monks signed Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy, all but one. There was one Monk who refused to sign, and successfully kept the status alive. His name was John Nott. Only the monks could choose successors and so he was made senior (Lord Prior) and came with two other monks to petition the Queen. He raised formal written petition co-signed by his fellow monks, to make requests of the Queen Elizabeth. John Nott’s petition was acknowledged to be valid and was endorsed by her counsellors. So this was one of many legal recognitions to the Hebrew Culdees practices and tradition back to “Joseph of Arimathea“. The Queen recognized his petition of 1556. In it he maintained that the church belonged to Joseph of Arimathea and his heirs. He stood up for this most ancient church, and offered to maintain the grounds without a salary. He wrote that it would also be passed down to his successors (a Culdean priestly House which is documented back to the earlier Culdean Period of Oxfordshire, where they were Earls, and later had founded a branch of the de Arden family of Warwick).

Although legally John Nott won this, his heirs made a “new Glastonbury” in Connecticut, and the one at England was all but abandoned from the regular Monastic style of ministry. Those of the true faith moved to America and so did much of the anointing(House of Joseph Ephraim now going beneath the brother tribe of Manasseh as was prophesied and fulfilled in Saxon American Israel). So while no true church was reestablished at the old Glastonbury, it went into dormancy while the same Heirs of John Nott established a new Glastonbury, and had continued it’s most core Hebrew traditions. This should be observed in balance of compliance to the Hebrew prescriptivev law that has continually been embraced by the said family,  and of the reversion back to the original Glastonbury charters, the original laws, and those of inheritance under the regular Culdean practice of the firstborn sons of the priests. Like “the sons of the prophets”, the succession of priestly duties were not bound only to the lands, but to the ministry wherever it may lead. The offices of succession for this house are several lines of Judah and David, which have covenant to rule and serve the true Saxon-American-Manasseh Israel.

Some quotes on this type of succession is documented in Jamison’s “Ancient Culdees”, Chapter 2

“ the priests under the law(Rabbis), they were succeeded by inheritance”

“ the church of Saint Andrews the Culdees came into the office hereditarily”

“The Culdees of Ireland practiced hereditary succession, the Bishopric of Armagh, could demonstrate fifteen generations.” (Read more. Also read our article “Apostolic Succession” and “Glastonbury Led By Married Hebrew Priests“)


Historically many of the Orthodox Monks had wives and children, and they retired there at the Glastonbury Abbey. Some of them were young students getting their early education there. Many Kings retired there to become a Monk, leaving their political duties, their wives and children only for visiting, and dedicating all their time to the Culdees’ church. For centuries celibacy was contested against at the Abbey. Like the orthodox priests, it was composed of married clergy. The Benedictine Monks came later, but these were also welcomed among the Culdee institutions.

Our articles on the physical descendants of the Celtic Monastics is well documented. The Hebrew purity laws already were enough of a guard against uncleanness during time of serving in priestly ceremony. This is better described in our article: “Celtic Priests Were Married, Most Abbots Were Married, Many Monks Were Married“.


The Rights Transferred to the Descendants in Spiritual Anointing.

The formal petition of the Glastonbury Cleric John Nott, that was received by the Queen had effectually retained several very important and ancient Culdean legal rights. These rights that originated in the First Century, were re-ratified and confirmed by numerous successive Kings, Clerics and Popes.

So the next in line of succession with the Glastonbury Culdean rights would be an early pioneer of America, who is also a genealogical descendant of Joseph of Arimathea. This family of Nott’s have demonstrated to have not only the physical genealogy (and DNA testing) but the humble and yet powerful spiritual anointing of David, Joseph of Arimathea and the Prophets. Among these is an important Culdee line of the O’Neill family, from which all the Abbots were chosen. This American family of John Nott is very well documented in leadership roles in America. One of which being the one who decreed as the chief judge at Wethersfield, to draw the lines of the New Glastonbury in 1653 and later order articles of drilling for the militia of Glastonbury.  He was the longest serving guard of several consecutive Governors of Connecticut. He was Judge of the said Courthouse at the time and place where it was written the first, and subsequent articles of “Perpetual Confederation” as being “for advancement of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, and maintaining the purity of the gospel”, as was adopted by the rest of the colonies as the “one aim” of America’s union, predating the English dominance of involvement in the said “First Constitution of America”(also called “the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut”) drafted at his courthouse. Among them were also Colonial Governor of Virginia Edward Nott, Supreme Court Justices, several representatives of state and federal senates and congress, the Patriarch of the New England Clergy Abraham Nott, and His son the Confederate Staff Officer and Medical Department Director, Dr Josiah C. Nott.


Glastonbury Rights to Ban and Set Free.

Culdees are recorded as having international rights that exceeded those of the infamous “Templars”. Culdees were later known in history as being the Chaplains of the Templars.
One of the most comprehensive charters that was repeatedly re-ratified and guaranteed by successive Kings internationally, including the Pope (with full autonomy outside Roman structure), was King Edmund’s in 944 describing the Culdees’ high priestly rights.
King Edmund re-recognized all the rights in Glastonbury’s past Charters of Independence that were signed by: King Edward, Alfred, Kentwyn, Ina, Cuthred, and the many other Kings and Clergy dating to the First Century.
In specifically He mentioned the rights of
Burghbrice, hundredsoena, Athas, Ordelas, Infangentheofas, Homsocna, Frithbrice, Foresealle, Toll and Teame. 
One of the rights was to ban any person from entering holy Glastonbury. Including the text that any “Cleric of the House” has the right to intervene on criminal court cases anywhere in the Kingdom,  even to pardon and release any prisoner that was scheduled to be executed.
These rights continued to be recognized by successive Kings up until Henry VIII. Only one “Cleric of the House” John Nott had refused to sign Henry’s Act of Supremacy. On the on the 21st of  November 1556, he raised formal petition with Queen Elizabeth, which was formally accepted by the Queen, indicated in letters of the Chief Treasurer, and in the investment by the Abbot of Westminster,  and in letters of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the text of the Sovereign Cleric, John Nott(also de jure Earl of several Earldoms) effectually Chartered that the Ecclesiastical and land rights
are secured for His Successors.

The historians have concluded that with the Queen’s untimely death,  that all the efforts were stopped short of reestablishing a true monastic house at Glastonbury.

However these spiritual and secular rights that belong to the Culdees of Glastonbury has continued as per the original prescriptive laws concerning them. These go back to the laws of the Bible, which the heirs have perpetually remained as their authority in all of these matters wherever they may go.

These very spiritual rights have continued with many signs of confirmation down to the American colonies of Israelite providence and destiny of Manasseh to overtake his brother tribe Ephraim as Jacob defined it as a  rotating preeminence between the two. It has indeed come to fruition in both the founding of the new Confederate America, and in the founding of the New City of Glastonbury (as it says “through prosperity, the cities of God will be spread abroad” Zech 1:17).

Cleric John Nott of Glastonbury was just a vessel, and Judge John Nott of Wethersfield was just another servant in this overall greater tribal subject of the Celto-Saxon peoples.

This Celto Saxon line is also held by the descendants of John Nott. The Pedigrees are available to those interested. The legal blood inheritance is traced to our current Primace who holds many lines of Culdees (including of the O’Neils, the MacGregors, and many more, all traced noble to the 10th generation). All traced to the Primace Dr. Stephen Michael d’Guelph Brunswick Nott. He is effectively half Celtic Scots-Irish. The rest is British and Saxon German.  Read more on the Ministerial Office Chronology of our Primace.

The Culdee’s Church re-established
+ Bishop Leroy Crouch did some great pioneering steps to revive the Orthodox Celtic church. His own church was based in Southern California in the 1980s-1990s. Numerous expert speakers on the Culdees spoke at his church. Various Syriac Orthodox texts were used, including Peshitta Aramaic as part of the festival liturgies. Lecture series by Crouch on the Culdees was carried at various Colleges in America, as well as at Celtic Universities in Wales and Scotland. So many British Israel greats lived in and around the area of his church. One regarded as the foremost living scholar on the subject (of Culdees and British Israelism) was E. Raymond Capt. (See some of his writings in the appendix of this article).
On the halls of the sanctuary were hung Scotland’s most precious possession, the Declaration of Arbroath (proof Scots are Israelites from Scythia), where the Scots claimed to have been confirmed to the faith by the Apostle Saint Andrew (and his assistant Artistobulus) and that they came from the Scythian Gothic region near the Black Sea.
The books, articles, and numerous radio and video courses done by his honored student, Rev Dr Stephen MK Brunswick, have helped with much progress re-establishing the authentic Celtic church. He ministers among the Western Orthodox (including some former Catholics, Anglican, Protestant and others holding our Orthodox creeds of faith and canonical Orthodox liturgy). Several church agreements with other orthodox jurisdictions have helped in mutual cooperation reviving our suppressed indigenous minority church of the Celtic people (whether in new jurisdictions or at the historic early establishments, or Pilgrim visits to our holy sites). One regular pilgrimage site has been St Joseph’s and St Mary’s at Glastonbury England. Another being St Andrew’s holy site at Kiev, and several French Gaulic Celtic sites. Please see the chapter on his Ministerial Office chronology.

Our Current Primace Elected 2015-Present

Orthodox Church of the Culdees

Rev. Dr. Stephen M.K. d’Guelph Brunswick ThD, PhD.

(Main Lines of Apostolic succession found below)

The inspirational life testimony of ++ Stephen is a larger topic, however here are the main ministry events in the Orthodox Church of the Culdees in as chronological with some subheadings.

A Minister holding several Canonical, Traditional and Legal succession credentials in the Ecclesiastical and Royal ranks of Celtic and Kindred jurisdictions.

His Ministerial Office Chronology

(Note: While initially being baptized Roman Catholic as an infant in 1978, the family reverted to Evangelical and Protestant churches in the 1980’s. However his educational upbringing remained primarily in Lutheran schools.)

In the year of our Lord, 1990, at the age of 12, +Stephen first came under the tutelage of +Bishop Pastor Leroy Crouch of Restoration Ministries. Crouch being of Celtic Davidic background, kept the Culdee Scottish documents posted in the Sanctuary for all to read.  The community kept a portion of the Celtic liturgy. He was a primary teacher of the Melchizedek Order, in several theology series. The Pastor was a Spiritual father to Stephen, who could visit his offices any time, as his own school campus (where Stephen’s Parents were the landlord and school officials). Crouch was a speaker at numerous Ministries that included America’s Promise conferences. He made several advanced theology series that were recorded at such conferences and at Restoration Ministries.

In the year of our Lord, 1999, Pastor Crouch nominated +Stephen to the office of Associate Pastor. Confirmation to office did not happen till 2000. +Stephen was highlighted in the Obituary as an honored student of Crouch, and gave part of his eulogy at the funeral.

In the year of our Lord, 2000, after 8 years active as a layman in the Culdees’ church at Orange(Restoration Ministries), and three years of a concentrated study +Stephen was officially anointed and ordained as a Priest and Evangelist by +Bishop Lesley Boyle, Assistant Pastor of the late Bishop Pastor Crouch.

In the year of our Lord, 2003, +Stephen became a Chaplain for several local community organizations including for the Imperial Order of Knights, performing weddings, baptisms, communion, and other church services.

In the year of our Lord, 2003, He was made Manager of the Celts Roots Bookshop(used at Scottish / Celtic Clan festivals), owned by Dr. Warren Johnson. From 2002 +Stephen was recognized as a Scholar by Dr. Johnson and other board members of the American Institute of Theology who published his works on Exegetical Theology into the advanced courseware of the Western Division seminary. Served as a regular lecturer and Honorary Professor.

In the year of our Lord, 2003, +Bishop Wesley Perkins and +Bishop Lesley Boyle consecrated Stephen as a Bishop of the church, having oversight of multiple assemblies throughout Orange County, San Bernardino and Riverside counties.

In the year of our Lord, 2004, +Stephen begun occupations of the estates and domains in Europe that were inherited by law as belonging to George d’Guelph Brunswick Nott, in succession of our Great Uncle Ulric d’Este Guelph Brunswick, who fought against the illegal occupations of Hanover and Prussia. All in accordance with numerous treaties and house laws on the method of transmitting the inheritance and taking possession.

In the year of our Lord, 2004, +Stephen became Evangelist to Europe and representative Bishop for the European branch of the Christ’s Assembly Worldwide, attending the annual synod (council of bishops).

In the year of our Lord, 2005, +Stephen established the “Good News of the Kingdom” Radio show as co-host with Pastor Boyle. This continued till 2014 with 450 sermons. Regular broadcasts are continued under “the Brunswickers” youtube channel till this day.

In the year of our Lord, 2006, +Stephen began a cooperation of Culdee institutes under His Eminence Abbot Dr David Michael Smith, Abbot General of the Culdee Order, Grand Master of the Templar Order of the Gate.

In the year of our Lord, 2007, +Stephen was issued a provisional charter by the Abbot General of the Culdee Order to form a Culdean Mission (and Abbey) at the South of the Netherlands. This was more of a recognition, co-participating in events. For a time he served as Abbot of Barendrecht Abbey, Zuid Holland. His Abbey and wider Celtic Church ministry (ongoing since 2000) delivered priestly services to the remnant and other outcasts of true Israel in dispersion, in pockets of Europe and the UK. Several newsletters highlighted his “2010 Pilgrimage Crusade” to “Reclaim the Ecclesiastical Rights of Glastonbury”, and leading festival services for various congregations. The primacy in the Culdees in Europe had been won back from various pagan imposters. Membership in this Celtic communion grew from various countries, including Germany, South Africa, Ukraine, Italy, France, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Belgium, Luxemburg, and England.

In the year of our Lord, 2009, +Bishop Wesley Perkins and +Bishop Lesley Boyle ordained +Bishop Stephen as Bishop at the Netherlands(overseeing multiple congregations), and jointly signed a letter of reference for his eventual election as Archbishop for the BENELUX jurisdiction, in the Christ’s Assembly Bishops’ council. Ordination Certificate was also received.

In the year of our Lord, 2009, The Heraldic Community of Westphalia registered the Nott Coat of Arms with Bishops’ Consecration award, adorning the 14th Century Dynastic house arms.

In the year of our Lord, 2009, +Stephen Michael was elevated to Crown Prince of the Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick principality, as His Serene Highness as Heir-at-law to George d’Guelph Brunswick Nott. As representative, exchanged award medals at the Ducal Guard ceremony held at Brunswick Germany in sight of 4,000 spectators. In 2009 HMSH launched the copyrighted websites, etc to distribute our Dynastic Claim book and the Documentary DVD “Throne Stolen but Not Lost” as produced by Galatia Films LLC.

In the year of our Lord, 2010, +Stephen Michael became Lord Prior of Glastonbury, leading locals in the liturgy. He is heir to the last Royally approved wardens of Glastonbury. After the long dedicated ministry service, this rank was confirmed by Culdean (including Anglican, Scottish and Irish church) Clerics at Glastonbury. This was the year the Catholic church stopped doing processions at Glastonbury. To fill in, right on time, +Stephen led a banner procession to the Tor, with a musical procession. Prayers of consecration info office were administered. A film crew from Galatia films kept a record for a possible future documentary. Installment of the church banner at the Tor was photographed and published in several newsletters. A meeting of about 30 persons applauded at this event. The headlines read: “reclaiming Glastonbury”. These meetings were also photographed and published.

In the year of our Lord, 2011, together with blessings of the successors of Restoration Ministries, the Priory of Salem was consecrated (for our Royal Priesthood under Christ the King of kings). The ceremony was officiated by Rev Stephen Michael K.B. at Samuel’s Great High Place at Gibeon (Jerusalem Israel) where Moses’ tabernacle rested. The consecration was during the High Holy day of the Feast of Passover after the Holy Communion. The service was held live by teleconference at a farm which is near the top of the highest mountain (at Gibeon) overlooking Jerusalem.

In the year of our Lord, 2013, the Archbishop of Berlin, and the Chancellor of the American Orthodox Catholic Church, and other Bishops, recognized the status of the Culdean church, our seniority, Celtic precedence among Western Churches and full autonomy. They also gave permission for us to minister to their churches. This was an official letter of recognition and communion between the OCC and AOCC, with a reference of our good cooperation in ministry for more than five years.

In the year of our Lord, 2015, +Stephen was consecrated as Primace (Lead Bishop/Archbishop) and anointed with stamped recognitions by three Archbishops, recognized in writing and in the anointing ceremony as head of multiple jurisdictional titles of Nobility within the church and within the Dukedom Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick (as a German elder Dukedom, several member principalities remain resident subordinate). Multiple Knights were also invested at the event. The Archbishop of Berlin, +Peter Becker OSB (primary consecrating Bishop) and the Archbishop +Blake Allan Hammacher OSB (assisting Bishop), did canonically consecrate +Stephen as Archbishop of the AOCC Archdiocese of the Netherlands and lowlands (Benelux) with the contractual conditions of full autonomy of the Orthodox Culdean Church. Both Bishops being Order of Saint Benedict.


The assisting Archbishop +Ambrose von Sievers, Catacomb Church of True Orthodox Christians, provided a certificate of reintegration with the Orthodox Church, and formally recognized +Archbishop(or Primace) Stephen Michael d’Guelph Prince of Brunswick, of the Culdee’s church, and (titular) Archbishop of Glastonbury.

The day of the consecration was a day of ecclesiastical revolution in the Netherlands. Interested parties may inquire on the successful activities published in the Newspaper that day.

Semi-annually +Stephen continues since 2010 meeting and maintaining services with the Glastonbury Clerics and others involved in ministry to the local people (and pilgrims). Some work full time in ministry, some in music, some in performing the Divine liturgies, and others in writing and distributing literature part time.

In the year of our Lord, 2016-present, +Stephen became Sovereign Ducal Protector for the investiture ceremonies for Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick jurisdictions of the Knights Templar.

In the year of our Lord, 2017, +Stephen was awarded with a Doctorate of Divinity. As with tradition of ordinations, the Professor Becker from the same Lutheran Institute of St Peter and St Paul, referred him along with the references to the school’s headmaster. So +Stephen may use in His style as Doctor (one of three). (Although titles aren’t his wish, simply “brother” or fellow minister are enough, some may address him as Rev Doctor or the Primace within the OCC communion.)

In the year of our Lord, 2017, +Stephen completed his Doctoral Thesis on the Celtic Church, and submitted it to the Lutheran Institute St Peter and St Paul, and was awarded the Degree of Doctor of Theology (or ThD).

In the year of our Lord, 2019, HMSH, Rev Dr Stephen M.K. Brunswick re-launched the audio courses of the late Bishop Pastor Crouch through the Priory of Salem at Missouri and via the Youtube channel.

In the year of our Lord, 2020, HMSH, Rev Dr Stephen M.K. Brunswick established the Ministry of St. Andrew’s and St. Joseph’s at Dixieland Rd, Arkansas.

In the year of our Lord, 2021, HMSH, Rev Dr Stephen M.K. Brunswick graduated from the Baptist School of Biblical & Theological Studies with the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, emphasis in Religious Education (or PhD).

In the year of our Lord, 2022, HMSH Rev Dr Stephen MK d’Guelph Brunswick has completed the legal required succession paperwork covering eight legal methods for the accession to the Chiefship of the Royal House of Este-Guelph, for the Sovereign Dukedom of Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick and Wolfenbuttel-Luneburg while retaining his lawful status as the Royal-priest head (summus episcopus) of the Wolfenbuttel-Brunswick church. The completion of these additional legalities came through the coursework of the earned Certificates in International Law and International Arbitration from two major accredited Universities in the EU.

Note: In some jurisdictions of co-ministry the office is called primace. In Germany it’s Landesbischof  (traditionally “summus episcopus”) as consecrated at Berlin as de jure prince-bishop of the de jure titular entity of Wolfenbuttel Brunswick.

Herein are several of the priestly lines that are recognized in Orthodox circles of Christendom (East and West). These lines connect in direct succession down from the Holy Apostles, in a consecration ceremony of anointing and the laying on of hands.

As a visiting Bishop to a foreign jurisdiction it is customary that a re-consecration is performed, to confirm the validity of the sacraments within those congregations.

While some believe these consecrations are not necessary, several Universities worldwide consider these as a requirement for anyone acting in priestly service. The English church, and many other churches that are not under Rome’s structure, decided to retain the Episcopal succession. This covers all international recognitions, as it says the English church has “retained it’s Episcopacy, but not as from Pope Gregory, who sent Augustine the monk hither, but from Joseph of Arimathea”. This is together with a wider re-establishment and recognition within the Eastern Orthodox Church (The True Orthodox Church, that escaped the Bolshevik massacres by living in the catacombs, AKA Catacomb church. In agreement with the canons of the original Russian church, to keep Sabbath on Saturday.)

[Special Note on the Sabbath:The Apostles’ Didascalia has been considered canonical in most of the Orthodox world, and in it the Sabbath is Saturday and it is called a day of rest and worship. In the Stoglav, an official manuscript of the Russian Orthodox Church, dated in the year 1556, and containing materials from the Moscow Council during the reign of Ivan IV (1531-1584), has a chapter on the Sabbath:
“By the Authority of Peter and Paul, we command to the people to work during the week. But on Subota (Sabbath) and on Nedelja (Sunday) let them worship in the Church and pray, and let them learn something for the sake of good faith. The Subota is the image of the whole creation, while the Nedelja is the day of the resurrection.” Read more in the book published by His Eminence ++Rev Dr Stephen M.K. Brunswick, Primace ,OCC, “Honouring the Sabbath in the Orthodox Church“.]

[In Short: + Stephen Michael (Nott-Brunswick) was consecrated with multiple titular anointings on February 7th, 2015. A main anointing that has been functional for a time was Archbishop of Glastonbury. The main duties are as the international Primace of the Culdees’ Church, and Prior over a school of seven. Although these callings in the Celtic church come from a hereditary birthright of the O’Neill line, and as “sons of the prophets”, as well as by calling and anointing from God firstly, these offices were confirmed by three Orthodox Archbishops of valid Apostolic Succession in right standing within our communion. These assisting Bishops were under multiple contracts not interfering with the independence of the Culdees’ jurisdictions, but in mutual help to our schools, removing doubts regarding canonicity and recognizing each other per the canons of the Orthodox faith, for the expansion of services to the local peoples.  Note, although this title of Archbishop is named in the papers provided, the Culdees use the word Primace to describe the same. Glastonbury would use not a Bishop title, but of a Lord Prior or Abbot, as this historically hereditary station was among many Culdee hereditary stations held by Lord Prior John Nott as the last formally recognized Abbott of the original Glastonbury that was destroyed by Henry VIII.]

Appendix Note 1
E. Raymond Capt on “CULDEES”
(Quidam advanae — ‘certain strangers’ — old Latin. In later Latin, “Culdich” or Anglicised, “Culdees.”) (E. Raymond Capt, “The Traditions of Glastonbury”, pg. 41
When Joseph and the Bethany group landed in the Isles, and even later disciples that would come from Gaul, they were not called Christians, but rather ‘Culdees’, meaning ‘certain strangers’, which is derived from ‘Ceile De’, meaning ‘Servant of the Lord’. In the ancient British Triads, Joseph and his twelve companions are referred to as Culdees, as were Paul, Peter, Lazarus, Simon Zelotes, Aristobulus and others of that walk, and the name is not known outside of Britain. It is attributed to Cymric, and even though Gaul was Keltic, the name ‘Culdee’ was never employed there.
In later years, the word Culdee emphasized that it was the ‘Culdee’ Christian Church that was the original Church of Christ on earth. It was termed the Culdee Church as late as A.D. 939, in church documents at Saint Peter’s Church, York. According to records, the Canons of York were called Culdees as late as the reign of King Henry II (A.D. 1133-1189). In Ireland, a whole county was so named. The Scottish Church was where would be found the latest use of the names ‘Culdee’ and ‘Culdish’. The first converts of the Culdees or ‘Judaean refugees’ were the Druids of Britain.
Appendix Note 2
“Celt, Druid and Culdee” (1973)
Isabel Hill Elder
To trace the history of the Culdees from the days of St. Columba is a comparatively easy task; to find their origin is more difficult. In the minute examination which such an investigation involves the name Culdee is discovered to have quite a different origin from that usually assigned to it.
The obscurity of the origin of the Culdich (Anglicized Culdees) has led many writers to assume that their name was derived from their life and work. The interpretations ‘Cultores Dei’ (Worshippers of God) and ‘Gille De’ (Servants of God) are ingenious but do not go far to solve the problem. Culdich is still in use among some of the Gael, of Cultores Dei and Gille De they know nothing.(1)
John Calgan, the celebrated hagiologist and topographer, translates Culdich ‘quidam advanae’ – certain strangers(2) – particularly strangers from a distance; this would seem an unaccountable interpretation of the name for these early Christians were it not for the statement of Freculphus(3) that certain friends and disciples of our Lord, in the persecution that followed His Ascension, found refuge in Britain in A.D. 37.(4) Further, here is the strong, unvarying tradition in the West of England of the arrival in this country in the early days A.D. of certain ‘Judean refugees’. It seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that Colgan’s Culdich, ‘certain strangers’, were one and the same with these refugees who found asylum in Britain and were hospitably received by Arviragus (Caractacus), king of the West Britons or Silures and temporarily settled in a Druidic college. Land to the extent of twelve hides or ploughs, on which they built the first Christian church, was made over to them in free gift by Arviragus. This land has never been taxed. Of the twelve hides of land conferred by Arviragus on this church, the Domesday Survey, A.D. 1088, supplies conformation. ‘The Domus Dei, in the great monastery in Glastonbury. This Glastngbury Church possesses in its own villa XII hides of land which have never paid tax.(5)
In Spelman’s ‘Concilia'(6) is an engraving of a brass plate which was formerly affixed to a column to mark the exact site of the church in Glastonbury.(7) ‘The first ground of God, the first ground of the Saints in Britain, the rise and foundation of all religion in Britain, the burial place of the Saints.'(8) This plate was dug up at Glastonbury and came into Spelman’s possession.
From a ‘mass of evidence’ to which William of Malmesbury gave careful study, the antiquity of the Church of Glastonbury was unquestionable. He says:
‘From its antiquity called, by way of distinction, “Ealde Chirche”, that is the Old Church of wattlework at first, savoured somewhat of heavenly sanctity, even from its very foundation, and exhaled it all over the country, claiming superior reverence, though the structure was mean. Hence, here assembled whole tribes of the lower orders, thronging every path; hence assembled the opulent, divested of their pomp; hence it became the crowded residence of the religious and the literary. For, as we have heard from men of elder times, here Gildas, an historian, neither unlearned nor inelegant, captivated by the sanctity of the place, took up his abode for a series of years. This Church, then, is certainly the oldest I am acquainted with in England, and from this circumstance derives its name. Moreover there are documents of no small credit, which have been discovered in certain places, to the following effect: No other hands than those of the disciples of Christ erected the Church at Glastonbury …. for if Phillip the Apostle reached to the Gauls, as Freculphus relates in the fourth chapter of his second book, it may be believed that he also planted the word on the hither side of the channel.'(19)
The first converts of the Culdees were Druids. The Druids of Britain, in embracing Christianity, found no difficulty in reconciling the teaching of the Culdees, or ‘Judean refugees’, with their own teaching of the resurrection and inheritance of eternal life. Numerous writers have commented upon the remarkable coincidence which existed between the two systems – Druidism and Christianity. (Amongst the Druidic names for the Supreme God which they had in use before the introduction of Christianity were the terms: ‘Distributor’, ‘Governor’, ‘The Mysterious One’, ‘The Wonderful’, The Ancient of Days’, terms strictly of Old Testament origin.(10)
Taliesen, a bard of the sixth century, declares :
‘Christ, the Word from the beginning, was from the beginning our teacher, and we never lost His teaching. Christianity was a new thing in Asia, but there never was a time when the Druids of Britain held not its doctrines.'(11)
From ‘Ecclesiastical An Antiquities’ of the Cymry we learn that the Silurian Druids embraced Christianity on its first promulgation in these islands, and that in right of their office they were exclusively elected as Christian ministers, though their claims to national privileges as such were not finally sanctioned until the reign of Lles ap Coel (Lucius), A.D. 156. Even so all the bardic privileges and immunities were recognized by law before the reign of this king.
‘And those Druids that formerly had dominion of the Britons’ faith become now to be helpers of their joy and are becomethe leaders of the blind, which through God’s mercy hath continued in this Island ever since through many storms and dark mists of time until the present day.'(12)
A Welsh Triad mentions Amesbury (Avebury) in Wiltshire as one of the three great Druidic ‘Cors’ or colleges of Britain, and one of the earliest to be converted to Christian uses. In the church attached to this college there were two thousand four hundred ‘saints’, that is, there were a hundred for every hour of the day and night in rotation, perpetuating the praise of God without intermission. This mode of worship was very usual in the early Church.(13)
The Christian king Lucius, third in descent from Winchester, and grandson of Pudens and Claudia(14) built the first minister on the site of a Druidic Cor at Winchester, and at a National Council held there in A.D.156 established Christianity the national religion as the natural successor to Druidism, when the Christian ministry was inducted into all the rights of the Druidic hierarchy, tithes included.(15)
The change over from Druidism was not a mere arbitrary act of the king, for, according to the Druidic law, there were three things that required the unanimous vote of the nation: deposition of the Sovereign, suspension of law, introduction of novelties in religion.(16)
Archbishop Usher quotes twenty-three authors, including Bede and Nennius, on this point and also brings in proof from ancient British coinage.(17) So uncontested was the point that at the Council of Constance it was pleaded as an argument for British precedence.
‘There are many circumstances’, writes Lewis Spence, ‘connected with the Culdees to show that if they practised a species of Christianity their doctrine still retained a large measure of the Druidic philosophy, and that indeed they were the direct descendants of the Druidic caste….
The Culdees who dwelt on Iona and professed the rule of Columba, were Christianized Druids, mingling with their faith a large element of the ancient Druidic cultus. . . . But all their power they ascribed to Christ – Christ is my Druid, said Columba.'(18)
Toland says that:
‘…the Druidical college of Derry was converted into a Culdee monastery. In Wales Druidism cease to be practised by the end of the FIRST century, but long after the advent of St.Patrick the chief monarchs of Ireland adhered to Druidism… Laegaire and all the provincial kings of Ireland, however, granted to every man free liberty of preaching and professing the Christian religion if he wished to do so.'(19)
The cumulative evidence of early historians leaves no shadow of doubt that Britain was one of the first, if not THE FIRST country to receive the Gospel, and that the apostolic missionaries were instrumental in influencing the change whereby the native religion of Druidism merged into Christianity.(20)
It is a remarkable circumstance that while statues of gods and goddesses prevail throughout the heathen sites of Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Hindu and other idolatrous nations, NOT A VESTIGE of an IDOL or IMAGE has been found in Britain.
If Mithraism is argued to contest this statement it should be observed that invaders were not free from idolatry. Mithra worship was a Roman importation. The British were entirely free from all forms of idolatry; they never adopted Mithraism. The Druids’ invocation was to ONE all-healing and all-saving power. Can we be surprised that they so readily embraced the gospel of Christ?
Further support for the early introduction of Christianity to Britain is gathered from the following widely diverse sources:
EUSEBIUS of Ceasarea speaks of apostolic missions to Britain as matters of notoriety. ‘The Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the isles called the Brittanic Isles.'(21)
TERTULLIUS of Carthage, A.D.208, the embodiment of the highest learning of that age, tells us that the Christian Church in the second century extended to ‘all the boundaries of Spain, and the different nations of Gaul and parts of Britain inaccessible to the Romans but subject to Christ.'(22)
ORIGEN, in the third century states: ‘The power of Lord is with those who in Britain are separated from our coasts.'(23)
‘From India to Britain’, writes St.JEROME, A.D.378, ‘all nations resound with the death and resurrection of Christ.'(24)
ARNOBIUS, on the same subject, writes: ‘So swiftly runs the word of God that within the space of a few years His word is concealed neither from the Indians in the East nor from the Britons in the West.'(25)
CHRYSOSTOM, Patriarch of Constantinople, A.D.402, supplies evidence in these words: ‘The British Isles which lie beyond the sea, and which lie in the ocean, have received the virtue of the Word. Churches are there found and altars erected. Though thou should’st go to the ocean, to the British Isles, there thou should’st hear all men everywhere discussing matters out of the Scriptures.'(26)
GILDS, the British historian, writing in A.D.542, states: ‘We certainly know that Christ, the True Sun, afforded His light, the knowledge of His precepts, to our Island in the last year of the reign of Tiberias Caesar, A.D.37.'(27)
Sir HENRY SPELMAN states: ‘We have abundant evidence that this Britain of ours received the Faith, and that from the disciples of Christ Himself soon after the Crucifixion’,(28)
POLYDORE VERGIL observes: ‘that Britain was of all kingdoms the first that received the Gospel’.(29)
The fact that Lucius established Christianity as the State religion excludes the claim of the Latin Church to that eminence. That this early establishment was acknowledged beyond the confines of Britain is well expressed by Sabellius, A.D.250. ‘Christianity was privately expressed elsewhere, but the first nation that proclaimed it as their religion, and called itself Christian, after the name of Christ, was Britain’;(30) and Ebrard remarks, ‘The glory of Britain consists not only in this, that she was the first country which in a national capacity publicly professed herself Christian, but that she made this confession when the Roman Empire itself was pagan and a cruel persecutor of Christianity.’
The writer of ‘Vale Royal’ states: ‘The Christian faith and baptism came into Chester in the reign of Lucius, king of the Britons, probably from Cambria, circa A.D.140.'(31)
Missionaries are said to have come from Glastonbury, only thirty miles distant, to instruct the Druids of Amesbury in the Christian faith. When the Druids adopted and preached Christianity, their universities were turned into Christian colleges and the Druid priests became Christian ministers; the transition was to them a natural one.
In the days of Giraldus Cambrensis (twelfth century), as a result of Roman Catholic doctrine, martyrdom and celibacy were much overrated, and it was thought a reproach to the Druids that none of their saints had ‘cemented’ the foundation of the Church with their blood, all of them being confessors, and not one gaining the crown of martyrdom.(32)
An absurd charge, blaming the people for their reasonableness, moderation and humanity, and taxing the new converts for not provoking persecution in order to gain martyrdom.
It is not contended that every individual Druid and bard accepted Christianity on its first promulgation in Britain Even after Christianity had become a national religion, petty kings, princes and the nobility retained, in many instances, Druids and bards. Druidism did not entirely cease until almost a thousand years after Christ.
Had the large collection of British archives and MSS deposited at Verulum as late as A.D.860 descended to our time, invaluable light would have been thrown on this as on many other subjects of native interest.
We read in an historical essay, ‘The Ancient British Church’, by the Rev.John Pryce, which was awarded the prize at the National Eisteddfod of 1876, these words:
‘In this distant corner of the earth (Britain), cut off from the rest of the world, unfrequented except by merchants from the opposite coast of Gaul, a people who only conveyed to the Roman mind the idea of untamed fierceness was being prepared for the Lord. Forecasting the whole from the beginning and at length bringing the work to a head, the Divine Logos unveiled Himself to them in the person of Christ, as the realization of their searching instincts and the fulfillment of their highest hopes. It would be difficult to conceive of Christianity being preached to any people for the first time under more favorable conditions. There was hardly a feature in their national character in which it would not find a chord answering and vibrating to its touch. Theirs was not the skeptical mind of the Greek, nor the worn-out civilization of the Roman, which even Christianity failed to quicken into life, but a religious, impulsive imagination – children in feeling and knowledge, and therefore meet recipients of the good news of the kingdom of heaven.
To a people whose sense of future existence was so absorbing that its presentiment was almost too deeply felt by them, the preaching of Jesus and the Resurrection would appeal with irresistible force. There was no violent divorce between the new teaching and that of their own Druids, nor were they called upon so much to reverse their ancient faith to lay it down for a fuller and more perfect revelation.
Well has the Swedish poet, Tegner, in ‘Frithiofs Saga’, pictured the glimmerings of the dawn of Gospel day, when he described the old priest as prophesying
‘All hail, ye generations yet unborn
Than us far happier; ye shall one day drink
That cup of consolation, and behold
The torch of Truth illuminate the world,
Yet do not us despise; for we have sought
With earnest zeal and unaverted eye,
To catch one ray of that ethereal light,
Alfader still is one, and still the same;
But many are his messengers Divine.’
1. Rev. T. McLauchlan, ‘The Early Scottish Church,’ p.431.
2. Trias Thaumaturga, p.156b.
3. Freculphus apud Godwin, p.10. See Hist. Lit.,II,18.
4. Baronius add. ann. 306. Vatican MSS. Nova Legenda.
5. Domesday Survey Fol., p.449.
6. See Epistolae ad Gregorium Papam.
7. See Joseph of Arimathea, by Rev.L.Smithett Lewis.
8. Concilia, Vol.I, p.9.
9. Malmes., ‘History of the Kings,’ pp.19,20.
10.G.Smith, ‘Religion of Ancient Britain,’ Chap. II, p.37.
11.Morgan, ‘St.Paul in Britain,’ p.73.
12.Nath. Bacon, ‘Laws and Government of England,’ p.3.
13.Baronius ad Ann 459, ex. Actis Marcelli.
14.Moncaeus Atrebas, ‘In Syntagma,’ p.38.
15.Nennius(ed.Giles), p.164. Book of Llandau, pp.26,68,289.
16.Morgan’s ‘British Cymry.’
17.Ussher (ed.1639), pp.5,7,20.
18.’The Mysteries of Britain,’ pp.62,64,65.
19.Dudley Wright, ‘Druidism,’ p.12.
20.Holinshed, ‘Chronicles,’ p.23.
21.’De Demostratione Evangelii,’ Lib. III.
22.’Adv.Judaeos,’ Chap. VII. Def.
Fidei, p.179.
23.Origen, ‘Hom. VI in Lucae.’
24.’Hom. in Isaiah,’ Chap.
LIV and Epist. XIII ad Paulinum.
25.’Ad Psalm,’ CXLV, III.
26.Chrysostom, ‘Orat O Theo Xristos.’
27.’De Excidio Britanniae,’ Sect. 8, p.25.
28.’Concilia,’ fol., p.1.
29.Lib. II.
30.Sabell. Enno, Lib. VII, Chap. V.
31.King’s ‘Vale Royal,’ Bk. II, p.25.
32.Topograph. Hibern Distinct. III, Cap. XXIX.
Appendix Note 3

Culdees Were The First Christians, “Drama of the Lost Disciples” by George F. Jowett

from the subchapter “the Culdees”:


The title, “Christian”, is claimed to have originated at
Antioch, following the enthusiastic reception given to the
disciples who fled there in A.D. 36. It is nearer to the truth
that the inhabitants of this ancient city referred to the
converts as “Little Christs”, and, “Little men of Christ”. These
labels are by no means the correct interpretation of the name
“Christian”. The word is a composite of Greek and Hebrew.
“Christ” is the Greek word meaning “consecrated”, and “ian” is
from the Hebrew word “am”, meaning a person, or people.
Therefore, the true meaning of the word “Christian” is
“consecrated people”.

Early ecclesiastics and historians definitely state that the
word is of British origin. Philologists also support its claim to
British invention; created by the British priesthood, among whom
the Christian movement gained its first and strongest impetus.
Substantiation is found in the statement by Sabellus, A.D. 250,
who wrote: “The word Christian was spoken for the first time in
Britain, by those who first received The Word, from the Disciples
of Christ.”

It is interesting to note that the Bethany group who landed
in Britain, was never referred to by the British priesthood as
Christians, nor even later when the name was in common usage.
They were called “Culdees”, as were the other disciples who later
followed the Josephian mission into Britain.
There are two interpretations given to the word “Culdee”, or
“Culdich”, both words purely of the Celto–British language, the
first meaning “certain strangers”, and the other as explained by
Lewis Spence, who states that “Culdee” is derived from
“Ceile-De”, meaning, “servant of the Lord”. In either case the
meaning is appropriate.
This title, applied to Joseph of Arimathea and his
companions, clearly indicates that they were considered as more
than ordinary strangers. The name sets them apart as somebody
special. In this case, since they arrived in Britain on a special
mission with a special message, we can fairly accept the title
meant to identify them as “certain strangers, servants of the
In the ancient British Triads, Joseph and his twelve
companions are all referred to as Culdees, as also are Paul,
Peter, Lazarus, Simon Zelotes, Aristobulus and others. This is
important. The name was not known outside Britain and therefore
could only have been assigned to those who actually had dwelt
among the British Cymri. The name was never applied to any
disciple not associated with the early British missions. Even
though Gaul was Celtic, the name was never employed there. In
later years the name Culdee took on an added significance,
emphasizing the fact that the Culdee Christian Church was the
original Church of Christ on earth. It became a title applied to
the church, and to its High Priests, persisting for centuries in
parts of Britain, after the name had died out elsewhere in favour
of the more popular name, Christian. Culdees are recorded in
church documents as officiating at St. Peter’s, York, until A.D.
936. And, according to the Rev. Raine, the Canons of York were
called Culdees as late as the reign of Henry II. In Ireland a
whole county was named Culdee, declared with emphasis when
reference was heard at a court hearing in the seventeenth
century, as to its laws. The name Culdee, and Culdich, clung
tenaciously to the Scottish Church, and its prelates, much longer
than elsewhere.

Cambell writes in “Reullura”:

The pure Culdees
were Alby’s [Albion] earliest priests of God,
ere yet an island of her seas,
by foot of Saxon monk was trod.